Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi known in Latin as Alboacen ( CE), was an Islamic jurist of the Shafi’i school most remembered for his works on religion, government, the caliphate, and public and constitutional law during a time of political turmoil. the Mu’tazila school of thought, the great (orthodox) Shafi’i jurist al-Subki (d. Al-Mawardi’s main political thought is embodied in his. Al-Ahham al-Sultaniyah. Only a small portion of the work is however devoted to political theory, the rest of . Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan al-. (d. ). Shafii jurist who wrote the most significant classical theoretical explanation of public law in relation to political theory.

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He is of the opinion that after the imam and misters, qaza is a very important branch of government. If the Imam is captured by a Muslim rebel army, and the rebels have not appointed an Imam of their own, the captured Imam shall continue to command the loyalty of the people, and an acting Imam shall be appointed by him, if possible, or by the Electoral College.

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Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan al-

Finance is to deal with dhimis. A candidate for this office should have the following qualities: This view is however, untenable on account of the fact that al-Mawardi is, truly speaking, not a philosopher, and is least interested in abstract thinking. Theory of Rebellion Introduction: He should punish those poiltical snatch rights of the others.

Physically and sensually fit: It defined the proper dignity and status of men in this universe, his relations and obligations to God, and His privileges as the Lord of creation. When they founded the Fatimid Empire and later the Safawid Dynasty in Persia, they wiped out their political opponents with cruelty and butchery. Al-Mawardi did not elaborate a theory of rebellion and if he wanted to propound a theory, he could have found abundant sanction for it in early thought and practice.

Skip to main content. The only sad thing about this was that it was too short-lived and that it could not get time for proper growth and consolidation. The Imam should personally look into and apprise himself of the affairs of his dominions so that he himself directs the national policy and protect the interests of the people.

A sovereign is to depend on his ministers. It was this theory of nomination that cut at the very root of democratic ideals in Islamic polity. The ideas of absolution of the Caliph and of divine right were entirely foreign to them.


After the fall of the Pious Caliphate, the idea of democratic caliphate passed into monarchical system without any ideological conflict. Apparently, the citation of this incident in support of a fundamental issue, like that of the Caliphate, is but fake reasoning.

This explains why he devotes only one-tenth of his book to the exposition of the theory of the Caliphate and uses the rest of his work to elaborate the detailed apparatus of government which hinges on the central authority of the Caliph.

He was not a visionary and idealist politicap the jurists or the scholastics, and like them did not sit to speculate a vacuum. He may be nominated by the ruling Imam In the first case some scholars hold that Imam must be elected by all the members of the Electoral College in all the cities; others oppose this view and say that Caliph Abu Bakr was elected by the citizens of Medina.

Further, he made his treatise an inviolable document by reinforcing it with the argument of earlier historical practice, dating back to the time of the Prophet, and by basing it on the opinions oplitical the thoght jurists of Islam.

He also holds that if there is only one candidate for this office, he automatically becomes caliph and there is no need of election. To safeguard and defense of the established principles of religion as understood and propounded by the consensus of ancient authorities. It was the clear infringement of this covenant that eventually led to the assassinations of Hazrat Usman R.

The Imam may not consult them in affairs of state. Al-Mawardi describes two methods. View this page in our App. Thursday, June 23, As a judge thlught served at various places and was finally posted in Baghdad.

Edinburgh Research Archive

His greatest merit, therefore, lies in the fact that he abstains from abstract speculation and correlates the opinions of the jurists to the historical perspective of his age. He is of the view that this method is suitable only if thoughh of the voters are also assessed. People have been empowered to elect the best one among them as caliph.

There is no ground to question his bona fidesyet it mawaedi have been more commendable if he had given the actual authorities. Even in the ancient and medieval tribal and monarchical systems it was recognized that if the monarch ruled with tyranny and inequity, the people had a right to overthrow him and choose a new leader in his place. According to Al-Mawardi Imamat is the base on which the rules and regulations of the community depend.


Al-Mawardi may have been well-intentioned but the legacy he left completely changed the concept polktical Muslim polity in the centuries that followed. All other Muslims he received the traditional education, and he wrote on many topics besides law, like, a Commentary on the Quran, a treatise on prophecy and several works on Ethics. The caliph is to consult him in state administration. Weakness in organs and senses is to inversely influence administration.

Luciani, Alger, ; E. When all hd come, a public assembly was held where the Caliph delivered one of the most thougght addresses of his life.

The imam has the power to appoint an electoral college or to nominate heir imam. Lack of constitutional theory not only reduced the value of his work, but also adversely affected the later development of Muslim Political thought. The state should have active military forces and these forces should have qualities,attitude with his juniors, behavior with the prisoners of war and attitude with his enemies. He is not in position thkught face up downs. The Abbasid Caliphs fetched the reign of the Islamic empire, killed these ideas altogether and the concept of the covenant was completely forgotten.

Political science: Al-Mawardi

In the preface of his al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyyah he writes. The Imam can appoint the Electoral College as well as the persons who may contest for the Imamate. So when the rulers broke this covenant, and violated the mawqrdi of representation and threw overboard the interest of the people, the people thought it as their inherent right to repeal such rulers and grab political power from them. The Muslim jurists are of the opinion that the institution of the Caliphate is not necessitated by a clear injunction in the Quran but by the consensus of opinion, it is obvious that the matter is left to the discretion and judgment of the Muslim community.

The Imam may be addressed as the Khalifa-tu-Allah, but the majority of jurists say that this title is forbidden, for no human being can represent God on Earth, since man is mortal and imperfect. It is the duty of the judge to protect such properties.