This standard is issued under the fixed designation A/AM; the number 1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A05 on Metallic-. In all cases only the current version of the standard as published by ASTM is to be considered the official document. Designation: A – 76 (Reapproved ) . ASTM A – A M – 02 – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

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Channels and other nonsymmetrical sections should be avoided for the framework of a sheet metal assembly that is to be hot-dip galvanized whenever it is possible to use symmetrical shapes or sections. When two steels of different thicknesses are assembled and brought up to galvanizing temperature, the thinner steel heats up and expands more quickly than the thicker steel.

Symmetrical sections such as Ashm and tubing will be less likely to distort than asymmetrical pieces camber beams, channels, tees, custom beams, girders because the thermal expansion forces above and below the natural axes balance each other. Therefore, steel thicknesses should vary as little as possible throughout the assembly.

ASTM A Recommendations | American Galvanizer’s Association

Welding results in significant residual stress in small areas of an assembly due to the extreme temperature differences experienced. Furthermore, cylindrical structures are less likely to warp or distort than rectangular or elliptical ones.

Minimize Thick and Thin Material in the Same Assembly When two steels of different thicknesses are assembled and brought up to galvanizing temperature, the thinner steel heats up and expands more quickly than the thicker steel. Necessary precautions to fabricate properly and prepare the material for galvanizing to prevent embrittlement are described in Practice A In the case of sheet metal, the product which has a right-angle bend in the sheet metal itself will remain flatter and be freer from distortion if the radius of the bend is as large as practicable.

This will prevent the rusting of the surfaces which are so connected that molten zinc cannot circulate through the crevices to galvanize the contacting surfaces.

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Last previous edition A – Asymmetrical Design Symmetrical sections such as I-beams and asym will be less likely to distort than asymmetrical pieces camber beams, channels, tees, custom beams, girders because the thermal expansion forces above and below the natural axes balance each other. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters.

The following displays various methods to reduce or eliminate the potential for warpage w384 distortion. Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard.

Wherever possible, galvanize thick and thin portions separately and join them after galvanizing.

Adtm welding before galvanizing cannot be avoided, the internal stresses in the connections can be minimized by avoiding joint designs or weld lengths which are greater than statically required, and by placing welds near to and symmetrically around the neutral axis – aligning welds so that shrinkage and opposing forces are balanced rather than all pulling in the same direction.

Suggested corrections for panel fabrication are detailed. Thls stendard Is subject to revision at any tlme by the responsible technical commHtee and must be reviewed every five years and H not revised, a834 reapproved or withdrawn.

Where excessive cold working or tight bend radii cannot be avoided, the product should be stress relieved per the guidelines provided within ASTM A, Section 6.

In welding any intermediate lengths along one side of a common member, care should be s384 to prevent warpage of the common member due to the application of high heat on the same side at various intervals along its length.

Oftentimes sheet or plate can be returned to a flattened state using a jig or by weighing the product down on a flat surface during the cool-down.

Clamps may be applied to prevent shifting or movement during the welding operation. The overall amount of welding can be minimized by using bolted connections or performing assembly after hot-dip galvanizing.

A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. These rivets can be countersunk or flat head if s384 protruding head of the ordinary button or round head rivet is objectionable. Common distorted and warped members of assemblies are sheets or plates assembled by welding or riveting. Avoid Susceptible Thin Sheet Steels Steel invariably contains internal stresses induced at the mill from rolling operations used aa384 bring structures, plate, and sheet to the final thickness.

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After galvanizing, these products should be air cooled instead of quenched to minimize induced stress from the cooling cycle. This specification deals with safeguarding against warpage and distortion during hot-dip galvanizing of steel assemblies.

I the f frame has to be dipped one half at a time, it will be better to have the sheets galvanized, rolled flat after galvanizing, and assembled to the galvanized frame by the use of aluminum alloy or galvanized rivets.

Optimize Welding Before Hot-Dip Galvanizing Welding results in significant residual stress in small areas of an assembly due to the extreme temperature differences experienced.

Practice ASTM A provides guidance on safeguarding against warpage and distortion for optimum hot-dip galvanizing and shall be complied with a38 both design and fabrication. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date. Current edition approved Oct. Originally published as A – 55 T. A – 76 Reapproved Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Warpage and Distortion During Hot-Dip Galvanizing of Steel Assemblies’ This standard is issued under the fixed designation A ; the number immediately foliowing the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.

The design and fabrication of the product to be galvanized are the responsibilities of the designer atsm the fabricator.

ASTM A384 Recommendations

A superscript epsilon E indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Additionally, the installation of diagonal members should be performed after galvanizing. Factors in Warpage and Distortion 3. Within the text of this specification and where appropriate, SI units are shown in parentheses.