(a) Principle of the reactions underlying DDRT-PCR analysis. (N) Any of the four nucleotides G, A, T, or C. V can be any nucleotide besides T. (B) Any nucleotide. Recently, a new approach has successfully been developed: Differential-Display Reverse Transcription-PCR (DDRT-PCR). This technique has been proven to. Establishment of infection and disease implies modifications in the genetic programmes of the cell systems that are involved and the differential expression of.

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Wipat A, Harwood CR. Both cdrt the pathogenic strain S. A typical GC—MS chromatogram of the ethanol extracts inhibition zone slices. Any external effect on the organism can affect its genetic behavior in a way of over or down expression of the genes according to the kind of the stimulant.

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Serine drt from nematode and protozoan parasites: Articles from 3 Biotech are provided here courtesy of Springer. The extraction of the active metabolites produced by the endophytic isolate SA was done as follows: We would like to thank King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Biology Department for supporting this work with all the required chemicals and equipments. Antagonistic effect of SA isolate against S.

Conclusion The products of endophytic bacterial isolate B. To investigate the upregulated or downregulated genes during the antagonistic process, both of the pathogenic and the antagonistic bacteria were grown either separately on two different nutrient agar plates or close to each other on the same plate. The bacterial production and secretion of serine protease for antimicrobial function is not yet documented. In-vivo expression technologies and differential display RT-PCR are providing new approaches to further examine a microbe’s response to experimental conditions which more closely resemble natural microbial associations and habitats.

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Open in a separate window. One of the colonies was chosen and transferred to a new NA plate to ensure complete purification. Of the eight compounds identified in the inhibition zone, the prevailing compounds were dodecane It has been reported that many endophytic isolates provide beneficial effects to their hosts, like preventing disease development by synthesizing novel compounds and antifungal metabolites Khan and Doty Int J Pharm Pharm Sci.

The black arrow showed the up-regulated gene of B. On the other hand, only chloramphenicol recorded 2. Differential display using Ea1 and Ea2 primers combined with OP1 reverse transcription primer. To our knowledge, this is the first study that illustrates the bacterial production of serine protease for antagonistic function against another genus of bacteria. Braz J Infect Dis.

In vitro antifungal activity of Argemone ochroleuca Sweet latex against some pathogenic fungi.

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Materials and methods Plant materials Salvadora persica L. Chitinolytic activity of an endophytic strain of Bacillus cereus. The antagonistic effect was only observed with S.

Bacillus subtilis BS as an antagonist of potato blackleg and soft rot bacteria. Antibacterial activity of volatile component and various extracts of Spirulina platensis. Impact of isolate SA activity in comparison with different antibiotics The antagonistic activity of the endophytic bacterial isolate was compared with ten different known bacterial antibiotics against S.

They play an important role in the plant health preservation in addition to their ability to supplement their host plants with inorganic nutrients via nitrogen fixation and iron solubilization processes Porras-Soriano et al. Results and discussion Isolation and antimicrobial activity of endophytic bacteria It is well known that, the isolation of bacteria that are capable of invading the inner tissues of a certain plant is a critical process.

The antibacterial activity of the chosen bacterial isolate, named SA, was examined against S. Introduction Endophytes have been defined as microorganisms bacteria or fungi which for all or part of their life cycle reside within the inner parts of plant tissues, but cause no symptoms of disease Vega et al.

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However, we strongly propose that our isolate was able to produce serine protease for antimicrobial purpose.

This factor has a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and specifically against Staphylococcus aureus MRSA. Isolation, gene cloning and expression profile of a pathogen recognition protein: Published online Jun 3. Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest All authors declare no conflict of interest. Support Center Support Center.

Read Article at publisher’s site. The up or down regulated genes were excised from the gel and submitted for purification using a gel purification kit Qiagene, Germany and the purified PCR products were submitted for sequencing Macrogen Inc.

Serine protease has been produced by many organisms, including plants, animals and microbes Liu et al. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Multiple sequence alignment, molecular phylogeny and phylogenetic tree were performed using MEGA 5 software Fig. Serine protease is also known to be produced by bacteria for purposes oth er than bacterial-bacterial antagonistic effect, which has been confirmed by this study.

Plant surface sterilization is necessary to avoid the co-contamination with superficial bacteria. Extraction of the bioactive metabolites produced by SA isolate The extraction of the active metabolites produced by the endophytic isolate SA was done as follows: They are able to antagonize the pathogenic microbes through the competition for space and nutrients, production of antibiotics, production of hydrolytic enzymes and by inducing plant defense mechanisms Ryan et al.

This factor has a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and specifically against Staphylococcus aureus MRSA.