22,9 mm – chapados en oro de revólver plata de ley y rodio y revólver móvil barril Gemelos – 08e0bf0. Plata de ley y – collar de corazón de corazón lujo pulido – cm 50,8 – JewelryWeb – 73b (50) ; Grossman WJ,; Verbsky JW,; Barchet W,; Colonna M,; Atkinson JP,; Ley TJ.

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Based on the identified centers of genetic diversity, the deduced migration routes and morphological comparisons we come up with the following speciation scenario 1995 the H.

Librado P, Rozas J. We here analysed for the first time the relevance of leey refugia for the distribution and speciation of a wind-pollinated and -dispersed species group in the Alps.

The data were mapped onto the global SRTM version 4 digital elevation data [ 9 ]. Amplification of the target loci was conducted in a Mastercycler Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. Unfortunately, a further sister 19945 support for this geographic placement of its origin is still not available as only the monophyly of the H.

Decreto Ejecutivo 15 De 1983

These combined into 27 haplotypes Table 4. Haplotype networks were calculated using Median Joining in Network 5. A speciation scenario Based on the identified centers of genetic diversity, the deduced migration routes and morphological comparisons we come up with the following speciation scenario for the H.


Further populations are found ely the Italian and Austrian Central Alps.

Average kinship N d between individuals of Helictotrichon parlatorei according to geographical distances based on combined chloroplast sequences rps16, rpL trnL UAGycf 3ln1, ycf 3ln2. The absence along the northern flank 199544 the Swiss Alps with limestone, however, remains unexplained.

Only by a single individual each of H.

Here we are thus tackling the wind-pollinated and—dispersed perennial herbs of the grass genus Helictotrichon Besser Poaceaewhich is widely distributed in temperate Eurasia [ 1415 ]. Cambridge University Press; H1, H4 and H8 are distributed across the entire Alps.

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Are the centers of genetic diversity congruent with postulated refugia, and which migration scenarios can be extrapolated for each species? The species thus escape the more stressful conditions of lower temperature, higher precipitation and longer snowcover at higher altitude [ 46 ].

The center of genetic diversity in H. The level of population structure G ST was 0. Here a larger sampling would be necessary. In contrast to earlier findings for small insect-pollinated herbs no clear barriers to gene flow could be detected in this species group.

Species delimitation Despite profound morphological and evident ecological differences as adaptation to local habitat conditions among all four taxa of the H. DOCX Click here for additional data file. Support Center Support Center. Amplification cycles were as follows: Please review our privacy policy. Some mutations were homoplasious resulting in loops. Some genetic consequences of ice ages, and their role in divergence and speciation.


The eastern key northern populations exhibited rather low haplotype diversities. In the Alps phylogeographic studies indicate for small insect-pollinated herbs that climatic fluctuations caused significant population migrations and fragmentations into glacial refugia at the periphery of the Alps. The four taxa are distributed mainly in the montane to lower alpine belt up to m a. As a minimum of three individuals per population is required for these statistics some populations had to be omitted from the analysis: Also H1 was rather widespread but only found in H.

S2 Table Voucher information of all sampled accessions of Alpine Helictotrichon used in this analysis. Polyploid evolution, intercontinental biogeographical relationships and morphology of the recently described African oat genus Trisetopsis Poaceae. This indicates slightly more efficient long distance dispersal via pollen than seeds. Starting in the Western Alps we thus hypothesize a consecutive sympatric ecological speciation of H.